Alcohol and violence in developmental perspective
Howard, Richard C.
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The purpose of this chapter is to describe the developmental risk factors that lead to an increased likelihood of adult alcohol-related violence. This is not a straightforward enterprise. In each individual case, a unique set of risk factors pertains over time, and, additionally, a range of protective factors may also be present. These risk and protective factors operate on a range of levels and include individual characteristics, family functioning, school bonding and academic attainment, peer associations, leisure pursuits and employment. Furthermore, there is an interactive effect between the at-risk individual and his or her social environment, which may exacerbate or mitigate problems. The developmental trajectory of interest starts in infancy—or even in utero—and continues into adulthood, and so there is a long story to be told. Our aim is to describe some of the major risk factors for alcohol-related violence across this developmental pathway. To examine alcohol use in relation to violence, we will organise our material in three sections: childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. In each section, we will examine risk factors in the intrapersonal, interpersonal and social domains. Before we do this, it is important to clarify our position on a number of key points—the construct of violence, the construct of antisocial personality and gender issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: chapter)